Date: Tue Oct 20 16:04:45 1998
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FAQ: International E-mail Accessibility (1997.12.01)
- To: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Subject: FAQ: International E-mail Accessibility (1997.12.01)
- From: Olivier MJ Crepin-Leblond <email@example.com>
- Date: Mon, 1 Dec 1997 13:27:28 +0000
- Organization: GIH - Global Information Highway Limited
- Sender: owner-country-codes
Based on International Standard ISO 3166 Codes
Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond
E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org> (remove "nospam")
Release Notes: a. New Web section on Internetology
(3 years of worldwide connectivity updates)
This document is Copyright 1994-1997 by Olivier Crepin-Leblond.
No part of this document may be reproduced in any commercial publication
by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including
recording, taping, or storage in an information retrieval system without
prior written permission of the copyright holder.
It may however be freely redistributed in its entirety provided that
this copyright notice, its headers "Archive-name", "Last-modified",
and "Release" are not removed.
Every now-and-then there are enquiries on the net regarding
E-mail to a distant country. The question is often of the type
"has that country got E-mail access ?". The following table is a
guide of country codes, showing the countries which have access to
Internet or general E-mail services. The country codes have been
derived from the International Organization for Standardization
standard ISO 3166. A country code is taken as a top level domain
once it is registered at rs.internic.net so *not* all country codes
listed are top level domains. At the bottom of the table, there is
also a section of general top level domains, based on the information
available at rs.internic.net.
1. Description of codes:
FI stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp',
and internet E-mail.
B stands for BITNET access although the address may be in internet
DNS (Domain Name System) format.
* (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by E-mail. If this is
not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP
connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for consistency.
PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+)
P stands for provisional connection. (+)
(+) This is used when one or more of the following is true:
- address not verified or lack of address
- UUCP dialup not active
- net connection possible but not officially announced
- premature official announcement of connection
F stands for a country that is connected to Internet only via means
of the FIDOnet network. It is assumed that the FIDO connection in this
case is stable and reliable.
2. Networks which are not included:
Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Military's unclassified portion of the
DDN - Data Defense Network) have computers all around the world. It is
generally possible to assume that wherever there is a U.S. military base,
there will be a node reachable through gateways.
Private company networks such as for DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.),
or Sun Microsystems, for example, have nodes in many exotic locations.
However the connection may take place via UUCP and cost a lot of money.
Those networks have therefore not been included. In addition, those
are PRIVATE networks.
Many companies ( like U.S. Sprint, for example ) offer commercial
services to many countries which are not readily available on
the Internet. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via
UUCP or X.400 connections. X.400 E-mail is usually charged to
someone and if the telecommunication carrier cannot find someone
to pay for the message transfer, it will reject it. As a result,
those types of network have not been included in the list.
Although a user may RECEIVE E-mail from a user on those networks, one
may not be able to reply to it.
The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international
networking is such that the information contained in this document
may be out of date by the time it reaches you.
If you have any update (i.e. knowledge that a new country is connected),
please send a message to <email@example.com> (remove "nospam"),
including an example address from the country reached so that it can
Furthermore, if you are a connection provider or could provide a
low cost connection in a country, and are not listed as a provider in
that country (see "FURTHER INFORMATION" section), please notify either
Randy Bush <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Steven Huter <email@example.com> or me (or
all three of us !).
NOTE: This doesn't include providers for North America.
If you are a North American provider, then please DON'T contact us.
4. .US sites
While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have
a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us domain is only FI and *.
5. .edu, .com, etc.
The domains in this section are special in that some of them are
used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet
access are marked accordingly.
6. UK and GB domains
UK stands for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. GB actually stands for Great Britain. GB is therefore a
subset of UK. In reality, the GB top level domain has been used mainly
for X.400 addressing of sites, while the UK top level domain is more
commonly used. While in the early nineties, there was an emphasis towards
X.400, and hence towards registration under the GB top level domain,
this policy does not stand anymore, and most sites in the UK are
now registered under the UK top level domain.
7. Further information column
This column contains information as follows:
- E-mail address of a contact from which further information may be obtained
- Details of a gopher system that can be queried for further information
in this case, look at Section 8: Where to find further information
- If no other information available: nameserver details, if any.
This is the main nameserver as listed in the rs.internic.net database.
Those often change as the network grows, and it is hard to keep track of
all nameservers, but they should usually work. Nameservers can be
queried by users using nslookup.
8. Where to find further information
A number of sites run on-line information databases, mail-servers,
and gopher information systems where further information can be found.
Part of this site, the InterNIC database services, contains the
Internet "white pages". The "whois" section of the "white pages"
has registration records for top level domains. "whois" can be
accessed by connecting interactively (telnet rs.internic.net),
or via gopher (gopher rs.internic.net) or using the "whois"
command available on some computer systems (whois -h rs.internic.net).
Registration records for a domain are sometimes useful since they
provide Administrative and Technical Contacts for this domain
and those may hence be able to provide further information.
Whois can also be accessible by E-mailing firstname.lastname@example.org<br>
and subject: whois <name/domain>
This is a gopher system run by ripe.net, the co-ordinator for
European Internet nodes. It contains a lot of information regarding
European IP, etc. It may be accessed either as "gopher gopher.ripe.net"
or "telnet gopher.ripe.net" and logging-in appropriately.
It also has a "whois" database.
- GNET: an Archive and Electronic Journal
This is co-ordinated by Larry Press <email@example.com>
Archived documents are available by anonymous ftp from the
directory global_net at dhvx20.csudh.edu (220.127.116.11). To
conserve bandwidth, the archive contains an abstract of each
document, as well as the full document. The preferred way
to access the archive is via the Web at:
In addition to the archive, there is a moderated GNET
To submit a document to the archive or subscribe to the moderated
discussion list, use the address firstname.lastname@example.org.
- BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
Bitnet LISTSERVs contain files which list all BITNET sites around
the world. For a listing of all BITNET sites, in country code order,
send a message to LISTSERV@Bitnic.educom.edu (or LISTSERV@BITNIC for
BITNET folks), no subject, and the command:
GET NODES INFO3
in the body of the message.
A very long file of information on all international BITNET sites
can be ftp'ed from Bitnic.educom.edu and is called BITEARN.NODES .
It is more than 2Mb long.
- IANA, the Internet Assignment Authority Association
This site keeps a list of country code registries at:
It is very useful for getting in touch with registration
services for each country.
This Web system, maintained by the Network Startup Resource
Center and PSGnet/RAINet contains perhaps the most comprehensive
collection of information about country connectivity.
It's top level reference is: http://www.nsrc.org/ and the
coloured maps held in http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/misc/bymap/world.html
point to further information www.nsrc.org.
A gopher system, "gopher.nsrc.org" is accessible through gopher.
For the gopher client impaired, one can telnet to gopher.nsrc.org
and login as gopher.
An important feature is an E-mail interface to access the information
in the gopher system.
Send E-mail to: email@example.com
any subject, and in the body of the message:
Example: if you want further information about Brazil (country code BR)
Many thanks to Randy Bush <firstname.lastname@example.org> and to John Klensin
<email@example.com> for setting-up this site and this
Once released, this document is archived in a number of archive
sites around the world. Amongst them:
(#) those may not be accessible via Bear access or direct PC access
in some cases.
The document is also retrievable by E-mail from rtfm.mit.edu by
sending an E-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org , blank subject line
and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes
The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using a
simple mail-server robot:
Send E-mail to: <email@example.com> with a subject: archive-server-request
and the command: get mail/country-codes in the body of your message.
The document is also distributed automatically once a month on a
mailing list. To subscribe to that mailing list, send a message to:
firstname.lastname@example.org with the command in the body of the
The whole collection of documents (monthly releases since 1992 !)
is available on: gopher://gopher.nsrc.org:70/1m/oclbfaq/oclb
10. World-Wide-Web (WWW) documents
A sister document is available on the World Wide Web. It is based
on this FAQ, and has links to further information for each domain:
A set of clickable international colour-coded maps is available at:
The pages are kindly hosted by Imperial College in London as a service
to the Internet community.
Web references for Top-Level information servers for a particular country
should be sent to <email@example.com> (remove "nospam"). Thanks to all
who have helped !
The Internet has exploded in size in the last few years.
The present document has been edited monthly since 1993, and some Web
pages have recently been put together to reflect on the continuing
spread of Internet/E-mail in the world since that time.
This new section is called "Internetology".
It provides a graphical history of the spread of the Net in developing
countries, by taking snapshots of Internet connectivity every six
months since November 1993. All of the maps tie-up with the
information that is included with the FAQ on International E-mail
The reference for the Internetology pages is:
ISO 3166 Codes + Top level domains.
The link to some countries marked as being connected to Internet via
UUCP or FIDO is often an expensive telephone dialup link. The people
in those countries pay dearly for every byte of information sent to
them. It is therefore not advised to send an electronic mail to a
remote node in such a country asking "how's the weather there".
When it comes to money, people take things very seriously, especially
since funds are scarce. It is a matter of net etiquette to keep this
in mind. Junk mail sent to any node that has to pay a lot for its
telephone connection will clearly be dealt with HARSHLY and evasive
action may well be taken against those not respecting this notice.
Code Country Conn Notes Further information
AD Andorra FI *
AE United Arab Emirates FI *
AF Afghanistan(Islamic St.)
AG Antigua and Barbuda FI *
AI Anguilla FI *
AL Albania FI *
AM Armenia FI * Ex-USSR
AN Netherland Antilles FI *
AO Angola (Republic of) FI *
AQ Antarctica FI * intermittent luxor.cc.waikato.ac.nz
AR Argentina FI *
AS American Samoa FI *
AT Austria FI B *
AU Australia FI *
AW Aruba FI *
AZ Azerbaijan FI B * Ex-USSR
BA Bosnia-Herzegovina FI *
BB Barbados FI *
BD Bangladesh FI *
BE Belgium FI *
BF Burkina Faso FI *
BG Bulgaria FI B *
BH Bahrain FI B *
BI Burundi FI *
BJ Benin FI *
BM Bermuda FI *
BN Brunei Darussalam FI *
BO Bolivia FI *
BR Brazil FI B *
BS Bahamas FI *
BV Bouvet Island
BW Botswana FI *
BY Belarus FI B * Ex-USSR
BZ Belize FI *
CA Canada FI B *
CC Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CD Dem. Repub. of Congo PFI *
CF Central African Rep. FI *
CG Congo *
CH Switzerland FI *
CI Ivory Coast FI *
CK Cook Islands *
CL Chile FI B *
CM Cameroon FI *
CN China FI *
CO Colombia FI *
CR Costa Rica FI *
CU Cuba FI *
CV Cape Verde
CX Christmas Island
CY Cyprus FI *
CZ Czech Republic FI *
DE Germany FI B *
DJ Djibouti FI *
DK Denmark FI *
DM Dominica FI *
DO Dominican Republic FI *
DZ Algeria FI *
EC Ecuador FI *
EE Estonia FI *
EG Egypt FI B *
EH Western Sahara
ER Eritrea *
ES Spain FI B *
ET Ethiopia FI *
FI Finland FI B *
FJ Fiji FI *
FK Falkland Isl.(Malvinas)
FM Micronesia FI *
FO Faroe Islands FI *
FR France FI B *
FX France (European Ter.) France Metropolitaine
GA Gabon FI *
GB Great Britain (UK) FI B * X.400 & IP ns1.cs.ucl.ac.uk
GD Grenada FI *
GE Georgia FI * Ex-USSR
GF Guiana (Fr.) FI *
GG Guernsey (Ch. Isl) FI *
GH Ghana FI *
GI Gibraltar FI *
GL Greenland FI *
GM Gambia *
GN Guinea FI *
GP Guadeloupe (Fr.) FI *
GQ Equatorial Guinea FI *
GR Greece FI *
GS South Georgia and
South Sandwich Islands
GT Guatemala FI *
GU Guam (US) FI * in US domains
GW Guinea Bissau FI *
GY Guyana FI *
HK Hong Kong FI *
HM Heard & McDonald Isl.
HN Honduras FI *
HR Croatia FI B *
HT Haiti FI *
HU Hungary FI B *
ID Indonesia FI *
IE Ireland FI *
IL Israel FI B *
IN India FI B *
IM Isle of Man FI *
IO British Indian O. Terr.
IR Iran FI B *
IS Iceland FI B *
IT Italy FI B *
JE Jersey (Ch. Isl.) FI *
JM Jamaica FI *
JO Jordan FI *
JP Japan FI B *
KE Kenya FI *
KG Kyrgyz Republic FI * Ex-USSR (in .su domain)
KH Cambodia FI *
KN St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla P
KP Korea (North) P
KR Korea (South) FI *
KW Kuwait FI * No BITNET
KY Cayman Islands FI *
KZ Kazakstan FI * Ex-USSR
LB Lebanon FI *
LC Saint Lucia FI *
LI Liechtenstein FI *
LK Sri Lanka FI *
LR Liberia *
LS Lesotho FI *
LT Lithuania FI * Ex-USSR
LU Luxembourg FI *
LV Latvia FI * Ex-USSR
MA Morocco FI *
MC Monaco FI *
MD Moldova FI * Ex-USSR
MG Madagascar FI *
MH Marshall Islands
MK Macedonia (former Yug.)FI *
ML Mali FI *
MN Mongolia FI *
MO Macau FI *
MP Northern Mariana Isl. FI *
MQ Martinique (Fr.)
MR Mauritania FI *
MT Malta FI *
MU Mauritius FI *
MV Maldives FI *
MW Malawi FI *
MX Mexico FI *
MY Malaysia FI *
MZ Mozambique FI *
NA Namibia FI *
NC New Caledonia (Fr.) FI *
NE Niger FI *
NF Norfolk Island
NG Nigeria FI F
NI Nicaragua FI *
NL Netherlands FI B *
NO Norway FI B *
NP Nepal FI *
NZ New Zealand FI *
OM Oman FI *
PA Panama FI B *
PE Peru FI *
PF Polynesia (Fr.) FI *
PG Papua New Guinea FI *
PH Philippines FI *
PK Pakistan FI *
PL Poland FI B *
PM St. Pierre & Miquelon
PR Puerto Rico (US) FI B *
PT Portugal FI *
PY Paraguay FI *
QA Qatar FI *
RE Reunion (Fr.) FI * In .fr domain
RO Romania FI B *
RU Russian Federation FI B * Ex-USSR
RW Rwanda F currently cut
SA Saudi Arabia FI B * dial-ip
SB Solomon Islands FI *
SC Seychelles FI *
SD Sudan FI *
SE Sweden FI B *
SG Singapore FI *
SH St. Helena
SI Slovenia FI *
SJ Svalbard & Jan Mayen IsFI * in .no domain
SK Slovakia (Slovak Rep) FI *
SL Sierra Leone *
SM San Marino FI *
SN Senegal FI *
SR Suriname FI *
ST St. Tome and Principe
SU Soviet Union FI B * Still used.
SV El Salvador FI *
SZ Swaziland FI *
TC Turks & Caicos Islands
TD Chad FI *
TF French Southern Terr.
TG Togo FI *
TH Thailand FI *
TJ Tadjikistan * Ex-USSR
TM Turkmenistan FI * Ex-USSR
TN Tunisia FI *
TO Tonga FI *
TP East Timor
TR Turkey FI B *
TT Trinidad & Tobago FI *
TW Taiwan FI *
TZ Tanzania FI *
UA Ukraine FI *
UG Uganda FI *
UK United Kingdom FI B * ISO 3166 is GB
UM US Minor outlying Isl.
US United States FI * see note (4)
UY Uruguay FI *
UZ Uzbekistan FI * Ex-USSR
VA Vatican City State FI *
VC St.Vincent & Grenadines P
VE Venezuela FI *
VG Virgin Islands (British)
VI Virgin Islands (US) FI *
VN Vietnam *
VU Vanuatu FI *
WF Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS Western Samoa FI *
YE Yemen FI *
YU Yugoslavia FI *
ZA South Africa FI *
ZM Zambia FI * intermittent
ZR Dem. Rep. of Congo PFI * replaced by CD
ZW Zimbabwe FI *
See Note  for the next top level domains (rs.internic.net):
ARPA Old style Arpanet * alias still works ns.nic.ddn.mil
COM Commercial FI * telnet
EDU Educational FI B * telnet
GOV Government FI * telnet
INT International field FI * ns1.cs.ucl.ac.uk
MIL US Military FI * ns.nic.ddn.mil
NET Network FI * telnet
ORG Non-Profit OrganizationFI * telnet
DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information,
this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY
an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis
for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a
voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could
be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release.
The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever
regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed.
Olivier MJ Crepin-Leblond, Ph.D. |----> Global Information Highway Limited
Phone: +44 (0)956 84 1113 | Always 60 seconds | E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Fax : +44 (0)171 937 7666 | ahead of the past | Web: http://www.gih.com/