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Date: Tue Oct 20 16:04:50 1998
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FAQ: International E-mail accessibility (1994.05.19)

Archive-name: mail/country-codes
Last-modified: 1994/05/19

Based on International Standard ISO 3166 Names
Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond
E-mail: <ocl@ic.ac.uk>
Release: 94.05.4

Release Notes:   a. China with FI. 
                 b. Malawi, Bangladesh and Eritrea with F (GreenNet node)
     Every now-and-then there are enquiries on the net regarding
E-mail to a distant country. The question is often of the type
"has that country got E-mail access ?". The following table is a
guide of country codes, showing the countries which have access to
Internet or general E-mail services.  The country codes have been
derived from the  International Organization for Standardization 
standard ISO 3166.  A country code is taken as a top level domain
once it is registered at rs.internic.net so *not* all country codes
listed are top level domains. At the bottom of the table, there is
also a section of general top level domains, based on the information
available at rs.internic.net.


1. Description of codes:

FI  stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp',
    and internet E-mail.
B   stands for BITNET access although the address may be in internet
    DNS (Domain Name System) format. 
*   (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by E-mail. If this is
    not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP
    connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for consistency.
PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+) 
P   stands for provisional connection. (+)
    (+) This is used when one or more of the following is true:
       - address not verified or lack of address
       - UUCP dialup not active
       - net connection possible but not officially announced
       - premature official announcement of connection
F  stands for a country that is connected to Internet only via means
   of the FIDOnet network. It is assumed that the FIDO connection in this
   case is stable and reliable.

2. Networks which are not included:

Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Army) have computers all around the
world. It is generally possible to assume that wherever there is
a U.S. military base, there will be a node reachable through gateways.

Private company networks such as for DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.),
or Sun Microsystems, for example, have nodes in many exotic locations.
However the connection may take place via UUCP and cost a lot of money.
Those networks have therefore not been included. In addition, those
are PRIVATE networks.

Many companies ( like U.S. Sprint, for example ) offer commercial 
services to many countries which are not readily available on 
the Internet. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via
UUCP or X.400 connections. X.400 E-mail is usually charged to
someone and if the telecommunication carrier cannot find someone
to pay for the message transfer, it will reject it. As a result,
those types of network have not been included in the list.
Although a user may RECEIVE E-mail from a user on those networks, one 
may not be able to reply to it.

3. Updates:

    The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international
networking is such that the information contained in this document
may be out of date by the time it reaches you.
If you have any update (i.e. knowledge that a new country is connected),
please send a message to <ocl@ic.ac.uk>, including an example address
from the country reached so that it can be verified.
Furthermore, if you are a connection provider or could provide a
low cost connection in a country, and are not listed as a provider in 
that country (see "FURTHER INFORMATION" section), please notify either
Randy Bush <randy@psg.com> or me.
NOTE: This doesn't include providers for North America. 
If you are a North American provider, then please DON'T contact us.

4. .US sites

    While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have
a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us domain is only FI and *.

5. .edu, .com, etc.

    The domains in this section are special in that some of them are
used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet 
access are marked accordingly. However, this doesn't mean that *all*
of  those  domains  have  full  internet  access.   For   example,
only a small proportion of .mil sites have full internet access. The
same is true for .com sites, for example.  

6. UK and GB domains

     There are two codes for United Kingdom, namely UK and GB. While 
UK is used for addressing of most domains in DNS format, the field 
GB is used mainly in the X.400 addressing of United Kingdom sites.
However, there is an increasing trend in some United Kingdom sites
being directly connected to Internet under the GB domain. The GB domain
is hence a perfectly suitable Internet top level domain.
When looking for further information, it is worth looking at both
UK and GB for United Kingdom.

7. Further information column

     This column contains information as follows:

- E-mail address of a contact from which further information may be obtained
- Details of a gopher system that can be queried for further information
  in this case, look at Section 8: Where to find further information
- If no other information available: nameserver details, if any.
  This is the main nameserver as listed in the rs.internic.net database.
  Those often change as the network grows, and it is hard to keep track of
  all nameservers, but they should usually work. Nameservers can be 
  queried by users using nslookup. 

8. Where to find further information

  A number of sites run on-line information databases, mail-servers,
and gopher information systems where further information can be found.

- rs.internic.net
    Part of this site, the InterNIC database services, contains the
  Internet "white pages". The "whois" section of the "white pages"
  has registration records for top level domains. "whois" can be
  accessed by connecting interactively (telnet rs.internic.net),
  or via gopher (gopher rs.internic.net) or using the "whois"
  command available on some computer systems (whois -h rs.internic.net).
  Registration records for a domain are sometimes useful since they
  provide Administrative and Technical Contacts for this domain
  and those may hence be able to provide further information.

- gopher.ripe.net
    This is a gopher system run by ripe.net, the co-ordinator for
  European Internet nodes. It contains a lot of information regarding
  European IP, etc. It may be accessed either as "gopher gopher.ripe.net"
  or "telnet gopher.ripe.net" and logging-in appropriately. 
  It also has a "whois" database.

- GNET: an Archive and Electronic Journal
  This is co-ordinated by Larry Press <lpress@dhvx20.csudh.edu>
  Archived documents are available by anonymous ftp from the 
  directory global_net at dhvx20.csudh.edu (  To 
  conserve bandwidth, the archive contains an abstract of each 
  document, as well as the full document.   
  In addition to the archive, there is a moderated GNET 
  discussion list.  
  To submit a document to the archive or subscribe to the moderated 
  discussion list, use the address gnet_request@dhvx20.csudh.edu.  

- BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
    Bitnet LISTSERVs contain files which list all BITNET sites around 
  the world. For a listing of all BITNET sites, in country code order,
  send a message to LISTSERV@Bitnic.educom.edu (or LISTSERV@BITNIC for
  BITNET folks), no subject, and the command: 
  in the body of the message.
  A very long file of information on all international BITNET sites
  can be ftp'ed from Bitnic.educom.edu and is called BITEARN.NODES .
  It is more than 2Mb long.

- gopher.psg.com
    This gopher system, maintained by the Network Startup Resource
  Center and PSGnet/RAINet contains perhaps the most comprehensive
  collection of information about country connectivity.
  It may be accessed as "gopher gopher.psg.com". For the gopher client
  impaired, one can telnet to gopher.psg.com and login as gopher. 
  An important feature is an E-mail interface to access the information
  in the gopher system.
  Send E-mail to: server@gopher.psg.com
  any subject, and in the body of the message:

  send country/<country-code>

  Example: if you want further information about Brazil (country code BR)

  send country/BR

  Many thanks to Randy Bush <randy@psg.com> and to John Klensin
  <klensin@infoods.unu.edu> for setting-up this site and this
  collaborative effort.

9. Archiving

    Once released, this document is archived in a number of archive
sites around the world. Amongst them:


(#) those may not be accessible via Bear access or direct PC access
    in some cases. 

Via E-mail request as follows: 

mail ftpmail@grasp.insa-lyon.fr
Subject: no one cares
get pub/faq/mail/country-codes

where [ ] = optional

All FAQs are also available via listserv@cc1.kuleuven.ac.be   or
listserv@blekul11.bitnet . For an index of all FAQs available,
put the command GET NETFAQS FILELIST in the body of your message.

The document is also retrievable by E-mail from rtfm.mit.edu by
sending an E-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu , blank subject line
and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes

The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using an
experimental simple mail-server that I have setup from my account.
Send E-mail to: <ocl@ic.ac.uk> with a subject: archive-server-request
and the command: get mail/country-codes  in the body of your message.

The document is also distributed automatically once a month on a 
mailing list. To subscribe to that mailing list, send a message to:
listserver@ic.ac.uk   with the command in the body of the message:
SUBSCRIBE country-codes <your-name>
where "<your-name>" is your real name.

ISO 3166 Codes + Top level domains.


The link to some countries marked as being connected to Internet via
UUCP or FIDO is often an expensive telephone dialup link. The people
in those countries pay dearly for every byte of information sent to
them. It is therefore not advised to send an electronic mail to a
remote node in such a country asking "how's the weather there".
When it comes to money, people take things very seriously, especially
since funds are scarce. It is a matter of net etiquette to keep this
in mind. Junk mail sent to any node that has to pay a lot for its
telephone connection will clearly be dealt with HARSHLY and evasive
action may well be taken against those not respecting this notice.

Code    Country              Conn     Notes         Further information 
AD   Andorra                                            
AE   United Arab Emirates        P    Apparently dead ns.uu.net
AF   Afghanistan(Islamic St.)
AG   Antigua and Barbuda         *                    upr1.upr.clu.edu 
AI   Anguilla
AL   Albania                     P                    gwd2i.cnuce.cnr.it
AM   Armenia                          Ex-USSR
AN   Netherland Antilles 
AO   Angola (Republic of)        *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
AQ   Antarctica             FI   *                    luxor.cc.waikato.ac.nz
AR   Argentina              FI B *  Uni. de Buenos Aires <info@dcfcen.edu.ar>
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
AS   American Samoa
AT   Austria                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
AU   Australia              FI   *                    munnari.oz.au 
AW   Aruba
AZ   Azerbaidjan                      Ex-USSR
BA   Bosnia-Herzegovina               
BB   Barbados                    *                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
BD   Bangladesh                  F
BE   Belgium                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
BF   Burkina Faso                *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
BG   Bulgaria               FI B *     Daniel Kalchev <daniel@digsys.bg>
BH   Bahrain                   B *    Gulfnet       <postmaster@bhuob00.bitnet>
BI   Burundi
BJ   Benin
BM   Bermuda                     *   Tom Coelho       <tom@bercol.dmc.com>
BN   Brunei Darussalam
BO   Bolivia                     *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
BR   Brazil                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
BS   Bahamas                     *                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
BT   Bhutan
BV   Bouvet Island
BW   Botswana                    *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
BY   Belarus                     *    Ex-USSR         gopher gopher.psg.com
BZ   Belize                      *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
CA   Canada                 FI B *                    relay.cdnnet.ca
CC   Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CF   Central African Rep.
CG   Congo                       *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
CH   Switzerland            FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
CI   Ivory Coast                 *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
CK   Cook Islands
CL   Chile                  FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
CM   Cameroon               FI   *    in .fr domain   gopher gopher.psg.com
CN   China                  FI   *                    iraun1.ira.uka.de
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
CO   Colombia                  B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com 
CR   Costa Rica             FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com 
CS   Czechoslovakia         FI B *    still works...  gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet gopher.ripe.net 
CU   Cuba                        *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
CV   Cape Verde
CX   Christmas Island
CY   Cyprus                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
CZ   Czech Republic         FI   *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
DE   Germany                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net 
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
DJ   Djibouti
DK   Denmark                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
DM   Dominica                    *                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
DO   Dominican Republic          *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
DZ   Algeria                FI   *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
EC   Ecuador                FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
EE   Estonia                FI   *    Juhan Poeldvere <juhan@chem.ut.ee> 
EG   Egypt                  FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
EH   Western Sahara
ER   Eritrea                     F
ES   Spain                  FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
ET   Ethiopia                    F                    gopher gopher.psg.com
FI   Finland                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
FJ   Fiji                   FI   *                    <postmaster@usp.ac.fj> 
FK   Falkland Isl.(Malvinas)
FM   Micronesia 
FO   Faroe Islands               P                    danpost.uni-c.dk
FR   France                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net 
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
FX   France (European Ter.)           ???
GA   Gabon
GB   Great Britain (UK)     FI   *    X.400 & IP      ns1.cs.ucl.ac.uk
GD   Grenada                     P                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
GE   Georgia                     *    Ex-USSR         ns.eu.net
GF   Guyana (Fr.)                *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
GH   Ghana                       F                    gopher gopher.psg.com
GI   Gibraltar
GL   Greenland
GM   Gambia                      F                    gopher gopher.psg.com
GN   Guinea
GP   Guadeloupe (Fr.)            *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
GQ   Equatorial Guinea
GR   Greece                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
GS   South Georgia  and
     South Sandwich Islands
GT   Guatemala                   *                    ns.uu.net
GU   Guam (US)              FI   *                    uog2.uog.edu
GW   Guinea Bissau
GY   Guyana
HK   Hong Kong              FI B *                    hp9000.csc.cuhk.hk
HM   Heard & McDonald Isl.
HN   Honduras                    *                    ns.uu.net
HR   Croatia                FI   *                    dns.srce.hr 
HT   Haiti                       P                    gopher gopher.psg.com
HU   Hungary                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
ID   Indonesia             PFI   *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
IE   Ireland                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
IL   Israel                 FI B *                    relay.huji.ac.il
IN   India                  FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
IO   British Indian O. Terr.
IQ   Iraq
IR   Iran                   FI B *   Ali Shokoufandeh <ali@IREARN.BITNET>
                                    Ebrahim Mashayekh <ebrahim@IREARN.BITNET>
                                        Akbar Behzadi <akbar@IREARN.BITNET>
IS   Iceland                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
IT   Italy                  FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
JM   Jamaica                     *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
JO   Jordan
JP   Japan                  FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
KE   Kenya                       *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
KG   Kyrgyz Republic                  Ex-USSR
KH   Cambodia
KI   Kiribati
KM   Comoros
KN   St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla     P                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
KP   Korea (North)               P                    
KR   Korea (South)          FI B *                    ns.kaist.ac.kr
KW   Kuwait                 FI   *    No BITNET       gopher gopher.psg.com
KY   Cayman Islands
KZ   Kazachstan                  *    Ex-USSR in .su domain
LA   Laos
LB   Lebanon               PFI   P                    gopher gopher.psg.com
LC   Saint Lucia                 *                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
LI   Liechtenstein          FI   *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
LK   Sri Lanka             PFI   *         Gihan Dias <gihan@cse.mrt.ac.lk>
LR   Liberia
LS   Lesotho                     *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
LT   Lithuania              FI   *    Ex-USSR         aun.uninett.no
LU   Luxembourg             FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
LV   Latvia                 FI   *    Ex-USSR         lapsene.mii.lu.lv
LY   Libya
MA   Morocco
MC   Monaco
MD   Moldavia              PFI   *        Ex-USSR         
MG   Madagascar (Republic of)    *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
MH   Marshall Islands
MK   Macedonia (former Yugo.)    *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
ML   Mali                        *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
MM   Myanmar
MN   Mongolia
MO   Macau                  FI   *                    hkuxb.hku.hk
MP   Northern Mariana Isl.
MQ   Martinique (Fr.)
MR   Mauritania
MS   Montserrat
MT   Malta                       P                    ns.iunet.it
MU   Mauritius                   P                    gopher gopher.psg.com
MV   Maldives
MW   Malawi                      F
MX   Mexico                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
MY   Malaysia               FI B *                    mimos.my
MZ   Mozambique                  *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
NA   Namibia                     *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
NC   New Caledonia (Fr.)         *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
NE   Niger                       *    in .fr domain   gopher gopher.psg.com
NF   Norfolk Island
NG   Nigeria                     F                    gopher gopher.psg.com
NI   Nicaragua              FI   *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
NL   Netherlands            FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
NO   Norway                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
NP   Nepal
NR   Nauru
NU   Niue
NZ   New Zealand            FI   *                    truth.waikato.ac.nz
OM   Oman
PA   Panama                    B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com 
PE   Peru                   FI   *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
PF   Polynesia (Fr.)             *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
PG   Papua New Guinea            *                    munnari.oz.au
PH   Philippines            FI   *                    ns.uu.net
PK   Pakistan                    *        Imran Anwar <imran@panix.com> 
PL   Poland                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net 
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
PM   St. Pierre & Miquelon
PN   Pitcairn
PR   Puerto Rico (US)       FI B *                    sun386-gauss.pr
PT   Portugal               FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet gopher.ripe.net
PW   Palau
PY   Paraguay                    *                    ns.uu.net
QA   Qatar
RE   Reunion (Fr.)          FI   *    In .fr domain   inria.inria.fr
RO   Romania                FI B *                    roearn.ici.ac.ro
RU   Russian Federation          P    Ex-USSR         
RW   Rwanda                      F                    gopher gopher.psg.com
SA   Saudi Arabia              B *    GulfNet         gopher gopher.psg.com
SB   Solomon Islands
SC   Seychelles                  *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
SD   Sudan
SE   Sweden                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
SG   Singapore              FI B *                    gopher solomon.technet.sg
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
SH   St. Helena
SI   Slovenia               FI   *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
SJ   Svalbard & Jan Mayen IsFI   *     in .no domain
SK   Slovakia (Slovak Rep)  FI   *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
SL   Sierra Leone
SM   San Marino
SN   Senegal                     *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
SO   Somalia
SR   Suriname                    *                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
ST   St. Tome and Principe
SU   Soviet Union           FI B *    Still used.     <hostmaster@ussr.eu.net> 
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
SV   El Salvador                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
SY   Syria
SZ   Swaziland                   *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
TC   Turks & Caicos Islands
TD   Chad
TF   French Southern Terr.
TG   Togo                        *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
TH   Thailand               FI   *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
TJ   Tadjikistan                      Ex-USSR         
TK   Tokelau      
TM   Turkmenistan                *    Ex-USSR in .su domain         
TN   Tunisia                FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
TO   Tonga
TP   East Timor
TR   Turkey                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
TT   Trinidad & Tobago           *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
TV   Tuvalu
TW   Taiwan                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com 
TZ   Tanzania                    F                    gopher gopher.psg.com
UA   Ukraine                FI   *    UA Network Enq. <domain-master@cs.kiev.ua>
UG   Uganda                      F                    gopher gopher.psg.com
UK   United Kingdom         FI B *    ISO 3166 is GB  telnet news.janet.ac.uk
                                                      gopher news.janet.ac.uk
                                    UK Network Enq. <liaison@nsfnet-relay.ac.uk>
                                                      gopher gopher.psg.com
UM   US Minor outlying Isl.
US   United States          FI   *    see note (4)    venera.isi.edu
UY   Uruguay                   B *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
UZ   Uzbekistan                       Ex-USSR
VA   Vatican City State
VC   St.Vincent & Grenadines     P                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
VE   Venezuela              FI   *                    nisc.jvnc.net
VG   Virgin Islands (British)
VI   Virgin Islands (US)         *                    
VN   Vietnam                     P                   
VU   Vanuatu                     *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
WF   Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS   Samoa
YE   Yemen
YT   Mayotte
YU   Yugoslavia             FI B *    Bitnet is cut   klepec.yunac.yu
ZA   South Africa           FI   *                    gopher gopher.psg.com
ZM   Zambia                      F                    gopher gopher.psg.com
ZR   Zaire
ZW   Zimbabwe                    *                    gopher gopher.psg.com

See Note [5] for the next top level domains (rs.internic.net):

ARPA Old style Arpanet           *    alias still works ns.nic.ddn.mil
COM  Commercial             FI   *                    telnet whois.internic.net
EDU  Educational            FI B *                    telnet whois.internic.net
GOV  Government             FI   *                    telnet whois.internic.net
INT  International field    FI   *    used by Nato    ns1.cs.ucl.ac.uk
MIL  US Military            FI   *                    ns.nic.ddn.mil
NATO Nato field                  *    soon to be deleted ???
NET  Network                FI   *                    telnet whois.internic.net
ORG  Non-Profit OrganizationFI   *                    telnet whois.internic.net

DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information,
this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY
an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis
for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a
voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could
be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release. 
The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever
regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed.
Affiliation to Imperial College is given for identification purposes only.

Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond, Digital Comms. Section, Elec. Eng. Department
 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BT, UK
       Internet/Bitnet: <foobar@ic.ac.uk> - Janet: <foobar@uk.ac.ic>